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Bachelor of Health Sciences

Parts of a Research Paper

Reference/Citation - Data about a source. 

Abstract - "Teaser" of what the paper is about.

Literature Review - What have others already written about? What do we know? What are the knowledge gaps?

Methodology - What was the approach? How was the study designed?

Results and Discussion - Outcomes (including negative results).

Limitations - "Blind spots" identified.

Conclusion - A look to the future.

Funding - Who paid for this research study? 

Reference List - Information used to inform the writing/creation of the piece

Cited by's - Who has cited the paper since it's been published?

Evidence Pyramid - click the pic

The EBM Pyramid

FROM: Applied Evidence Based Medicine Research Guide

The images below illustrate different approaches to visualizing the organization of health sciences research. The "Hierarchy of Evidence" seeks to identify types of study designs appropriate for answering specific types of questions, such as questions about harms. You can read more about evidence hierarchies in the Users' Guides to the Medical Literature (see reference below)

Synopses and summary publications such as guidelines or systematic reviews are synthesizes of the primary literature (original research studies). The goal is to ensure that evidence can be more easily accessed and applied in practice.

Finding Current Best Evidence, Guyatt G, Rennie D, Meade MO, Cook DJ. Users' Guides to the Medical Literature: A Manual for Evidence-Based Clinical Practice, 3rd ed; 2015. Available at: Accessed: April 01, 2020


Further Reading: