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Science 311

When citing...

... you acknowledge another person's ideas, whether you have quoted them directly or not. You are also trying to provide enough information for your reader to find the source that you consulted.

A citation provides brief details of the author and date of publication within your paper. It leads the reader to your Bibliography or Reference List

A Bibliography or Reference List is a list at the end of your paper of all references used within your paper

  • Name-year format: references are sorted alphabetically by surname of the first author

A reference is a specially formatted description of the item from which you obtained your information


For SCIE classes, references are formatted according to the name-year format in the Council of Biology Editors' (now Council of Science Editors, CSE) Scientific Style and Format:

  • Scientific style and format citation quick guide
  • CSE information from the Library's Citation Guide.
  • If using Zbib or another citation software program, you should be able to select CSE Name-Year as your style.
  • Note that Zbib is only as good as the data that goes into it. It's your responsibility to check the references it generates and correct any errors. Common errors can occur with authors who have two surnames or with improper capitalizations of proper nouns such as corporate and place names.