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APA Citation Tools & Resources

Citation tools & resources for students and scholars using the APA style guide

Finding the DOI

The APA requires that the citation provides a means of linking to the electronic version of the resource. The preferred method is the DOI (Digital Object Identifier), which is a string of symbols (numbers and letters), much like a URL, which is assigned to a digital object (like an article) and serves as a persistent link to the "digital object" (the article).

If an article does not have a DOI, use a Permalink or the URL instead. Some older print versions of articles will not have a DOI, a Permalink, or a URL. If that is the case, you do not need to include them. The DOI, Permalink, or the URL, if available, are placed at the very end of your citation.

Sometimes, you will not be able to find the DOI in URL format. For example, you might encounter something like this: 10.1007/s10464-005-3404-4. You can turn the DOI into a URL link by adding "" in front of the DOI to create a functioning link (e.g.:


Here is an example of a standard APA citation with a DOI:



If the article has a DOI, it can be found on the article itself (usually either at the top of the article or at the bottom of the page):

You can also find the DOI in the "Details" section of the PRIMO record itself: