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"The purpose of this article on COVID-19 is to aggregate existing research, bring together the relevant data and allow readers to make sense of the published data and early research on the coronavirus outbreak" (by: Max Roser, Hannah Ritchie and Esteban Ortiz-Ospina - University of Oxford)
The Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine (CEBM) has committed its skills and expertise in evidence synthesis and dissemination to the effort against the current COVID-19 pandemic. This page will be updated regularly
Communicable Disease Control and Health Protection Handbook by Jeremy Hawker; Norman Begg; Ralf Reintjes; Karl Ekdahl; Obaghe Edeghere; Jim E. van SteenbergenThe essential guide to controlling and managing today's communicable diseases The fourth edition of Communicable Disease Control and Health Protection Handbook offers public health workers of all kinds an authoritative and up-to-date guide to current protocols surrounding the identification and control of infectious diseases. With its concise, accessible design, the book is a practical tool that can be relied upon to explain topics ranging from the basic principles of communicable disease control to recent changes and innovations in health protection practice. Major syndromes and individual infections are insightfully addressed, while the authors also outline the WHO's international health regulations and the organizational arrangements in place in all EU nations. New to the fourth edition are chapters on Ebola, the Zika virus, and other emerging pandemics. In addition, new writing on healthcare-associated infection, migrant and refugee health, and the importance of preparedness make this an essential and relevant text for all those in the field. This vital resource: Reflects recent developments in the science and administration of health protection practice Covers topics such as major syndromes, control of individual infections, main services and activities, arrangements for all European countries, and much more Includes new chapters on the Zika virus, Schistosomiasis, Coronavirus including MERS + SARS, and Ebola Follows a format designed for ease of use and everyday consultation Created to provide public and environmental health practitioners, physicians, epidemiologists, infection control nurses, microbiologists and trainees with a straightforward - yet informative - resource, Communicable Disease Control and Health Protection Handbook is a practical companion for all those working the field today.
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Publication Date: 2018-12-03
Managing Epidemics by World Health OrganizationThis manual provides concise and up-to-date knowledge on 15 infectious diseases that have the potential to become international threats, and tips on how to respond to each of them. The diseases covered are: Ebola virus disease, Lassa fever, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever, yellow fever, Zika, Chikungunya, avian and other zoonotic influenza, seasonal influenza, pandemic influenza, Middle-East respiratory syndrome (MERS), cholera, monkeypox, the plague, leptospirosis and meningococcal meningitis. Although originally developed as guidance for WHO officials, this publication is available to a wide readership including all frontline responders--communities, government officials, non-State actors and public health professionals--who need to respond rapidly and effectively when an outbreak is detected.
Global Health Impacts of Vector-Borne Diseases by National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; Health and Medicine Division; Board on Global Health; Forum on Microbial Threats; Alison Mack (Editor)Pathogens transmitted among humans, animals, or plants by insects and arthropod vectors have been responsible for significant morbidity and mortality throughout recorded history. Such vector-borne diseases â€" including malaria, dengue, yellow fever, and plague â€" together accounted for more human disease and death in the 17th through early 20th centuries than all other causes combined. Over the past three decades, previously controlled vector-borne diseases have resurged or reemerged in new geographic locations, and several newly identified pathogens and vectors have triggered disease outbreaks in plants and animals, including humans. Domestic and international capabilities to detect, identify, and effectively respond to vector-borne diseases are limited. Few vaccines have been developed against vector-borne pathogens. At the same time, drug resistance has developed in vector-borne pathogens while their vectors are increasingly resistant to insecticide controls. Furthermore, the ranks of scientists trained to conduct research in key fields including medical entomology, vector ecology, and tropical medicine have dwindled, threatening prospects for addressing vector-borne diseases now and in the future. In June 2007, as these circumstances became alarmingly apparent, the Forum on Microbial Threats hosted a workshop to explore the dynamic relationships among host, pathogen(s), vector(s), and ecosystems that characterize vector-borne diseases. Revisiting this topic in September 2014, the Forum organized a workshop to examine trends and patterns in the incidence and prevalence of vector-borne diseases in an increasingly interconnected and ecologically disturbed world, as well as recent developments to meet these dynamic threats. Participants examined the emergence and global movement of vector-borne diseases, research priorities for understanding their biology and ecology, and global preparedness for and progress toward their prevention, control, and mitigation. This report summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.
Publication Date: 2016-09-21
The Neglected Dimension of Global Security by National Academy of Medicine, Secretariat; Commission on a Global Health Risk Framework for the FutureSince the 2014 Ebola outbreak many public- and private-sector leaders have seen a need for improved management of global public health emergencies. The effects of the Ebola epidemic go well beyond the three hardest-hit countries and beyond the health sector. Education, child protection, commerce, transportation, and human rights have all suffered. The consequences and lethality of Ebola have increased interest in coordinated global response to infectious threats, many of which could disrupt global health and commerce far more than the recent outbreak. In order to explore the potential for improving international management and response to outbreaks the National Academy of Medicine agreed to manage an international, independent, evidence-based, authoritative, multistakeholder expert commission. As part of this effort, the Institute of Medicine convened four workshops in summer of 2015. This commission report considers the evidence supplied by these workshops and offers conclusions and actionable recommendations to guide policy makers, international funders, civil society organizations, and the private sector.
Emerging Viral Diseases by Eileen R. Choffnes (Editor); Alison Mack (Editor); Forum on Microbial Threats; Board on Global Health; Institute of MedicineIn the past half century, deadly disease outbreaks caused by novel viruses of animal origin - Nipah virus in Malaysia, Hendra virus in Australia, Hantavirus in the United States, Ebola virus in Africa, along with HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), several influenza subtypes, and the SARS (sudden acute respiratory syndrome) and MERS (Middle East respiratory syndrome) coronaviruses - have underscored the urgency of understanding factors influencing viral disease emergence and spread. Emerging Viral Diseases is the summary of a public workshop hosted in March 2014 to examine factors driving the appearance, establishment, and spread of emerging, re-emerging and novel viral diseases; the global health and economic impacts of recently emerging and novel viral diseases in humans; and the scientific and policy approaches to improving domestic and international capacity to detect and respond to global outbreaks of infectious disease. This report is a record of the presentations and discussion of the event.
Publication Date: 2015-03-19
The Use and Effectiveness of Powered Air Purifying Respirators in Health Care by Catharyn T. Liverman (Editor); Sarah B. Domnitz (Editor); Margaret A. McCoy (Editor); Board on Health Sciences Policy; Institute of MedicineProtecting 18 million United States health care workers from infectious agents - known and unknown - involves a range of occupational safety and health measures that include identifying and using appropriate protective equipment. The 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic and the 2014 Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa have called raised questions about how best to ensure appropriate and effective use of different kinds of personal protective equipment such as respirators, not only to promote occupational safety but also to reduce disease transmission. The Use and Effectiveness of Powered Air Purifying Respirators in Health Care is the summary of a workshop convened by the Institute of Medicine Standing Committee on Personal Protective Equipment for Workplace Safety and Health to explore the current state of practices and research related to powered air purifying respirator (PAPRs) and potential updates to performance requirements. Presentations and discussions highlighted current health care practices using PAPRs and outlined the research to date on the use and effectiveness of PAPRs in health care settings with a focus on the performance requirements. The Use and Effectiveness of Powered Air Purifying Respirators in Health Care focuses on efficacy, current training, maintenance, supplies, and possible enhancements and barriers to use in inpatient, clinic, nursing home, and community (home) settings. This report also explores the strengths and weaknesses of using various approaches to health care PAPR standards.
Publication Date: 2015-05-07
Infectious Disease Movement in a Borderless World by Alison Mack (Editor); Eileen R. Choffnes (Editor); David A. Relman (Editor); Forum on Microbial Threats; Board on Global Health; Institute of MedicineModern transportation allows people, animals, and plants--and the pathogens they carry--to travel more easily than ever before. The ease and speed of travel, tourism, and international trade connect once-remote areas with one another, eliminating many of the geographic and cultural barriers that once limited the spread of disease. Because of our global interconnectedness through transportation, tourism and trade, infectious diseases emerge more frequently; spread greater distances; pass more easily between humans and animals; and evolve into new and more virulent strains. The IOM's Forum on Microbial Threats hosted the workshop "Globalization, Movement of Pathogens (and Their Hosts) and the Revised International Health Regulations" December 16-17, 2008 in order to explore issues related to infectious disease spread in a "borderless" world. Participants discussed the global emergence, establishment, and surveillance of infectious diseases; the complex relationship between travel, trade, tourism, and the spread of infectious diseases; national and international policies for mitigating disease movement locally and globally; and obstacles and opportunities for detecting and containing these potentially wide-reaching and devastating diseases. This document summarizes the workshop.
Publication Date: 2010-03-10
Learning from SARS by Katherine Oberholtzer (Editor); Laura Sivitz (Editor); Alison Mack (Editor); Stanley Lemon (Editor); Adel Mahmoud (Editor); Stacey Knobler (Editor); Forum on Microbial Threats; Board on Global Health; Institute of MedicineThe emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in late 2002 and 2003 challenged the global public health community to confront a novel epidemic that spread rapidly from its origins in southern China until it had reached more than 25 other countries within a matter of months. In addition to the number of patients infected with the SARS virus, the disease had profound economic and political repercussions in many of the affected regions. Recent reports of isolated new SARS cases and a fear that the disease could reemerge and spread have put public health officials on high alert for any indications of possible new outbreaks. This report examines the response to SARS by public health systems in individual countries, the biology of the SARS coronavirus and related coronaviruses in animals, the economic and political fallout of the SARS epidemic, quarantine law and other public health measures that apply to combating infectious diseases, and the role of international organizations and scientific cooperation in halting the spread of SARS. The report provides an illuminating survey of findings from the epidemic, along with an assessment of what might be needed in order to contain any future outbreaks of SARS or other emerging infections.
The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine has treated 104 patients with confirmed COVID-19 in the past 50 days, and their experts wrote real treatment experience when combating the virus night and day, and quickly published this Handbook of COVID-19 Prevention and Treatment, expecting to share their invaluable practical advice and references with medical staff around the world. This handbook compared and analyzed the experience of other experts in China, and provides good reference to key departments such as hospital infection management, nursing, and outpatient clinics. This handbook provides comprehensive guidelines and best practices by China's top experts for coping with COVID-19.