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BUSN - Citing Business Sources

Using this Guide

Citing sources effectively is a key aspect of maintaining a high level of academic integrity.  This guide will help you understand APA by illustrating  examples of proper citation practices that can enhance your skills both in your academic career and as a future business leader.  You can search in this guide by looking for the search bar on the top right-hand side of the guide, or you can scroll through the tabs on the left to find examples of the source you are trying to cite.

Sometimes the most difficult part of citing is knowing what type of resource you have.  You can use the table below for help, or reach out to your librarian for further clarification at any point. 

APA Style

What am I citing?

Scholarly journal articles      
  • Journals are published on a regular basis
  • Usually includes an abstract/summary
  • Often report on original research
  • Cite other works and have lists of references
  • Articles are lengthy usually >10 pages
  • Author(s) are researchers, professors, subject experts and credentials are provided
  • Journal focuses on a specific field of study
  • Written for academic audience
  • Available in print or online

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Trade publications
  • Trade publications are published on a regular basis
  • Trade publications are written for those involved in a specific industry or trade
  • Trade articles are written about specific industries, trades or products
  • Articles are shorter usually a few pages in  length
  • No list of references
  • Often have glossy images
  • Available in print or online

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Magazine articles
  • Magazines are published on a regular basis
  • Magazines are written for the general public
  • Magazine articles are written about topics of general interest
  • Articles are shorter usually a few pages in  length
  • No list of references
  • Often have glossy images
  • Available in print or online

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Open access
news articles
  • Published on websites of newspapers, wire services, radio, television
  • Written for the general public
  • Usually about very current events
  • Written by news reporters or may not have an author
  • Articles are short
  • No references listed
  • Often include advertising
  • Often invite comments

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News articles
retrieved from
an online
  • Published by newspapers, wire services, radio, television
  • Accessible online through databases like Factiva; Canadian Newsstand etc.
  • Written for the general public
  • Usually about very current events
  • Written by news reporters or may not have an author
  • No references listed
  • No advertising
  • No comments invited

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  • May be hosted by anyone – authoritative sources, news agencies, organizations as well as members of the general public
  • Promote discussion on a specific theme/topic/cause
  • Comments are invited
  • Usually shows an archive of posts
  • Posts are often categorized by specific topics

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  • Prepared by government, corporations, organizations, individuals etc.
  • Released to the news media
  • Usually making an announcement about a current event, decision or development
  • Can be found on an organization's website

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  • Purpose is to provide the public with information about the company and promote its products or services
  • Includes information such as: company history, operations, products/services, executives, investors’ information, news etc.

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  • Books are available in print and electronic versions
  • Accessed through the library catalogue or an e-book aggregator such as Ebrary, Books 24X7 Business Pro; Safari Online

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Chapters in
a book
  • Chapters in a book may all be written by the author(s) of the book, OR
  • a book may be a collection of chapters each written by different author(s) – in this case the book is “edited” by one or more editors
  • They may be confused with journal articles - look for the word "Chapter" and note if there is a journal title, volume and issue number at the top or bottom of the page.

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  • Websites that allow anyone to add, delete or edit content using a web browser
  • Searchable by keyword

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Annual reports
  • Publications provided by publicly-traded companies to their shareholders
  • Also called 10-K reports (United States)
  • Provide information about operations and detailed financial statements
  • May be found on a company website; SEDAR (Canadian companies) or EDGAR (US companies)
  • Usually published electronically but many companies also publish a print version

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  • Published by government departments or agencies
  • May be in print or electronic format
  • Government documents include legislation, regulations, reports etc.

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Industry reports
  • Published by business information publishers like Marketline; Mergent; Standard & Poor’s; Business Monitor International; IBISWorld; Euromonitor, etc.
  • Provide information at the industry level and usually include market information, statistics, trends, issues, outlook/forecast etc.
  • Usually accessed electronically through online business databases

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Analyst reports
  • Written by financial analysts who are affiliated with major investment firms
  • These reports are written strictly from an investment point-of-view and include the analyst's recommendations
  • May be at the company or industry level
  • Usually accessed electronically through the online databases ThomsonONE or Bloomberg

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Social media
  • Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, LinkedIn, YouTube, Pinterest, etc.
  • Purpose is to share and exchange information in virtual communities
  • All content is user-generated
  • “Authored” by businesses, organizations, communities and individuals – authority of the information depends on the author/creator

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